Yes! Labor legislation of Turkey is applicable to Turkish citizens and foreign employees alike. Also, the Turkish Constitution contains provisions concerning equality, and guarantees the right to social security for everyone.
Anyone who are working against wage under an employment contract and paying their social security premiums will be entitled to retirement from SGK/SSI. In practice, social security premiums of an employee are deducted from their salary and paid to SSI by the employer. Even in case of entitled employee’s death, dependent spouse and children will benefit from the pension.